Walleye

Species Information

Scientific Name:Sander vitreus
Environment:Lake, River, Stream
Ideal Temp:55-68°F (13-20°C)
Technique:Casting, Fly, Jigging, Trolling
Lure Type:Crankbaits, Flies, Jigs, Plugs, Spinnerbaits, Spoons, Topwater, Trolling
World Record:11.34kg (25 lbs.) Old Hickory Lake, Tennessee, USA
Other Names:walleye, colored pike, yellow pike, pickerel
Walleye (Sander vitreus, formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is a freshwater perciform fish native to most of Canada and to the Northern United States. It is a North American close relative of the European pikeperch. The walleye is sometimes called the yellow walleye to distinguish it from the blue walleye, which is a subspecies that can be found in the southern Ontario and Quebec regions.

In some parts of its range, the walleye is known as the walleyed pike, colored pike, yellow pike or pickerel (esp. in English-speaking Canada), although the fish is not related to other species of pikes which are members of the family Esocidae.

Walleyes show a fair amount of variation across watersheds. In general, fish within a watershed are quite similar and are genetically distinct from those of nearby watersheds. The species has been artificially propagated for over a century and has been planted on top of existing populations or introduced into waters naturally devoid of the species, sometimes reducing the overall genetic distinctiveness of populations.

Walleyes are largely olive and gold in colour (hence the French common name: doré — golden). The dorsal side of a walleye is olive, grading into a golden hue on the flanks. The olive/gold pattern is broken up by five darker saddles that extend to the upper sides. The colour shades to white on the belly. The mouth of a walleye is large and is armed with many sharp teeth. The first dorsal and anal fins are spinous, as is the operculum. Walleyes are distinguished from their close cousin the sauger by the white colouration on the lower lobe of the caudal fin which is absent on the sauger. In addition, the two dorsals and the caudal fin of the sauger are marked with distinctive rows of black dots which are absent from or indistinct on the same fins of walleyes.

Walleyes grow to about 80 cm (31 in) in length, and weigh up to about 9 kg (20 lb). The maximum recorded size for the fish is 107 cm (42 in) in length and 11.3 kilograms (25 lb) in weight. The growth rate depends partly on where in their range they occur, with southern populations often growing faster and larger. In general, females grow larger than males. Walleyes may live for decades; the maximum recorded age is 29 years. In heavily fished populations, however, few walleye older than five or six years of age are encountered. In North America, where they are heavily prized, their typical size when caught is on the order of 30 to 50 cm (12 to 20 in), substantially below their potential size.

In most of the species' range, the majority of male walleyes mature at age three or four. Females normally mature about a year later. Adults migrate to tributary streams in late winter or early spring to lay eggs over gravel and rock, although there are open water reef or shoal spawning strains as well. Some populations are known to spawn on sand or on vegetation. Spawning occurs at water temperatures of 6 to 10 °C (43 to 50 °F). A large female can lay up to 500,000 eggs, and no care is given by the parents to the eggs or fry. 

Both juvenile and adult walleyes eat fish almost exclusively, frequently yellow perch or ciscoes, moving onto bars and shoals at night to feed. Walleye also feed heavily on crayfish, minnows, and leeches.

Because walleyes are popular with anglers, fishing for walleyes is regulated by most natural resource agencies. Management may include the use of quotas and length limits to ensure that populations are not over-exploited. As one example, in the state of Michigan, Wisconsin walleye shorter than 15 in (38 cm) may not be legally kept, except in Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair River where fish as short as 13 in (33 cm) may be taken.

Since walleyes have excellent visual acuity under low illumination levels, they tend to feed more extensively at dawn and dusk, on cloudy or overcast days and under choppy conditions when light penetration into the water column is disrupted. Although anglers interpret this as light avoidance, it is merely an expression of the walleye's competitive advantage over its prey under those conditions. Similarly, in darkly stained or turbid waters, walleye tend to feed throughout the day. In the spring and fall walleye are located near the shallower areas due to the spawning grounds; and they are most often located in shallower areas during higher winds due to the murkier, higher oxygenated water at around six feet deep. On calm spring days the walleye are more often located at the deep side of the shoreline drop-off and around shore slopes around or deeper than ten feet.

"Walleye chop" is a term used by walleye anglers for rough water typically with winds of 10 to 25 km/h (6 to 16 mph), and is one of the indicators for good walleye fishing due to the walleye's increased feeding activity during such conditions. In addition to fishing the "Walleye chop", night fishing with live bait can be very effective.

The current all-tackle world record for a walleye is held by Mabry Harper, who caught a 11.34kg (25 lbs.) walleye in Old Hickory Lake in Tennessee, USA on August 2nd, 1960.

Latest Walleye Fishing Reports and Spots

Fishing Report 8.11.2022 received 8.12.22 from Lake of the Woods Tourism Bureau - 8/11/2022 8:33:00 PM

Fishing Report 8.11.2022 On the south end…  Fishing is excellent.  Lots of limits of walleyes along with some big fish being caught.  Lake level (View)


Despite the Heat - 7/31/2022 8:00:59 PM

Despite extreme heat and wind a group from Saint Cloud Minnesota caught limits of walleye on Oahe with a few nice ones here and there. The post (View)


Larger Walleye - 8/5/2022 8:00:13 PM

Larger Walleye are starting to turn on down on the lower third of Oahe. Each member of this group from Kansas caught at least one nice walleye (View)


Fishing Report 8.4.2022 - 8/4/2022 1:25:00 PM

Lake of the Woods Tourism Bureau Fishing report received 8.4.22 to dmrservice@hotmail.com ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Fishing Report 8.4.2022 On the sou (View)


Fishing Report 7.27.22 - 7/27/2022 12:30:00 PM

Courtesy of Lake of the Woods Tourism Bureau received 7.29.22 to dmrservice@hotmail.com Fishing Report 7.27.2022 On the south end…  Summer walle (View)


Is a fishing license necessary? - 7/27/2022 7:11:05 AM

Is a fishing license necessary? In the early days of the 19th Century Americans didn’t require a license to fish in America. The fishing commun (View)


Fishing Report 7.20.22 - 7/20/2022 12:02:00 PM

WE HAVE NIGHTCRAWLERS HERE AT DALE’S ON LAKE OF THE WOODS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lake of the Woods Tourism Bureau weekly fishing rep (View)


April 2022 Fishing Report - 7/20/2022 5:55:41 PM

  by Eric Crowley   Water temperature: 65 degrees  lake level: full clarity: 8 feet.         The walleye bite has been really good the last few (View)


May 2022 Fishing reports - 7/20/2022 6:01:28 PM

May 2022 Temp 78 Level full Clarity 10ft The spring walleye bite is over and it’s on to summer time fishing on Lake Blue Ridge. The last few wee (View)


June 2022 - 7/20/2022 6:09:10 PM

Temp 81 Level full Clarity 12 ft  Well it’s summertime and the temps and boat traffic are pretty much on par for this time of year. Neither are (View)