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|Scientific Name:||Caranx ignobilis|
|Environment:||Inshore, Nearshore, Surf|
|Ideal Temp:||70-86°F (21-30°C)|
|Technique:||Bottom Fishing, Casting, Fly, Jigging|
|Lure Type:||Bottom Rig, Flies, Jigs, Plugs, Topwater|
|World Record:||72.8 kg (160 lb 7 oz) Tokara, Kagoshima, Japan|
|Other Names:||Giant trevally, lowly trevally, barrier trevally, ulua|
The giant trevally, also known as the giant kingfish, lowly trevally, barrier trevally, ulua, or GT, is a species of large marine fish classified in the jack family, Carangidae. The giant trevally is distributed throughout the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region, with a range stretching from South Africa in the west to Hawaii in the east, including Japan in the north and Australia in the south. It is distinguished by its steep head profile, strong tail scutes, and a variety of other more detailed anatomical features. It is normally a silvery colour with occasional dark spots, but males may be black once they mature. It is the largest fish in the genus Caranx, growing to a maximum known size of 170 cm and a weight of 80 kg. The giant trevally inhabits a wide range of marine environments, from estuaries, shallow bays and lagoons as a juvenile to deeper reefs, offshore atolls and large embayments as an adult. Juveniles of the species are known to live in waters of very low salinity such as coastal lakes and upper reaches of rivers, and tend to prefer turbid waters.
The giant trevally is a powerful apex predator in most of its habitats, and is known to hunt individually and in schools. The species predominantly takes various fish as prey, although crustaceans, cephalopods and molluscs make up a considerable part of their diets in some regions. The species has some quite novel hunting strategies, including shadowing monk seals to pick off escaping prey, as well as using sharks to ambush prey. The species reproduces in the warmer months, with peaks differing by region. Spawning occurs at specific stages of the lunar cycle, when large schools congregate to spawn over reefs and bays, with reproductive behaviour observed in the wild. The fish grows relatively fast, reaching sexual maturity at a length of around 60 cm at three years of age. The giant trevally is both an important species to commercial fisheries and a recognised gamefish, with the species taken by nets and lines by professionals and by bait and lures by anglers. Catch statistics in the Asian region show hauls of 4000-10 000 tonnes, while around 10 000 lbs of the species is taken in Hawaii each year. The species is considered poor to excellent table fare by different authors, although ciguatera poisoning is common in the fish. Dwindling numbers around the main Hawaiian Islands have also led to several proposals to reduce the catch of fish in this region.
The giant trevally is the largest member of the genus Caranx, and the fifth-largest member of the family Carangidae (exceeded by the yellowtail amberjack, greater amberjack, leerfish and rainbow runner), with a recorded maximum length of 170 cm and a weight of 80 kg. Specimens this size are very rare, with the species only occasionally seen at lengths greater than 80 cm. It appears the Hawaiian Islands contain the largest fish, where individuals over 100 lbs are common. Elsewhere in the world, only three individuals over 100 lbs have been reported to the IGFA.
The giant trevally is similar in shape to a number of other large jacks and trevallies, having an ovate, moderately compressed body with the dorsal profile more convex than the ventral profile, particularly anteriorly. The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first consisting of eight spines and the second of one spine followed by 18 to 21 soft rays. The anal fin consists of two anteriorly detached spines followed by one spine and 15 to 17 soft rays. The pelvic fins contain 1 spine and 19 to 21 soft rays. The caudal fin is strongly forked, and the pectoral fins are falcate, being longer than the length of the head. The lateral line has a pronounced and moderately long anterior arch, with the curved section intersecting the straight section below the lobe of the second dorsal fin. The curved section of the lateral line contains 58-64 scales, while the straight section contains none to four scales and 26 to 38 very strong scutes. The chest is devoid of scales with the exception of a small patch of scales in front of the pelvic fins. The upper jaw contains a series of strong outer canines with an inner band of smaller teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single row of conical teeth. The species has 20 to 24 gill rakers in total and 24 vertebrae are present. The eye is covered by a moderately well-developed adipose eyelid, and the posterior extremity of the jaw is vertically under or just past the posterior margin of the pupil. The eye of the giant trevally has a horizontal streak in which ganglion and photoreceptor cell densities are markedly greater than the rest of the eye. This is believed to allow the fish to gain a panoramic view of its surroundings, removing the need to constantly move the eye, which in turn will allow easier of detection of prey or predators in that field of view.
At sizes less than 50 cm, the giant trevally is a silvery-grey fish, with the head and upper body slightly darker in both sexes. Fish greater than 50 cm show sexual dimorphism in their colouration, with males having dusky to jet-black bodies, while females are a much lighter coloured silvery-grey. Individuals with darker dorsal colouration often also display striking silvery striations and markings on the upper part of their bodies, particularly their backs. Black dots of a few millimetres in diameter may also be found scattered all over the body, although the coverage of these dots varies between widespread to none at all. All the fins are generally light grey to black, although fish taken from turbid waters often have yellowish fins, with the anal fin being the brightest. The leading edges and tips of the anal and dorsal fins are generally lighter in colour than the main part of the fins. There is no black spot on the operculum. Traces of broad cross-bands on the fish's sides are occasionally seen after death.
The giant trevally is widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging along the coasts of three continents and many hundreds of smaller islands and archipelagos. In the Indian Ocean, the species' easternmost range is the coast of continental Africa, being distributed from the southern tip of South Africa north along the east African coastline to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Its range extends eastwards along the Asian coastline, including Pakistan, India and into Southeast Asia, the Indonesian Archipelago and northern Australia. The southernmost record from the west coast of Australia comes from Rottnest Island, not far offshore from Perth. Elsewhere in the Indian Ocean, the species has been recorded from hundreds of small island groups, including the Maldives, Seychelles, Madagascar and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
The giant trevally is abundant in the central Indo-Pacific region, found throughout all the archipelagos and offshore islands including Indonesia, Philippines and Solomon Islands. Along continental Asia, the species has been recorded from Malaysia to Vietnam, but not China. Despite this, its offshore range does extend north to Hong Kong, Taiwan and southern Japan. In the south, the species reaches as far south as New South Wales in Australia and even to the northern tip of New Zealand in the southern Pacific. Its distribution continues throughout the western Pacific, including Tonga, Western Samoa and Polynesia, with its westernmost limits known to be the Pitcairn and Hawaiian Islands.
The giant trevally is a powerful predatory fish, from the estuaries it inhabits as a juvenile to the outer reefs and atolls it patrols as an adult. Hunting appears to occur at different times of the day in different areas of its range; off South Africa it is most active during the day, especially at dawn and dusk, while off Zanzibar and Hong Kong, it is nocturnal in its habits. The species' diets have been determined in several countries and habitats; their diets generally vary slightly by locations and age. In all but one study (which was of juveniles), the giant trevally dominantly takes other fishes, with various crustaceans, cephalopods and occasionally molluscs making the remainder of the diet. In Hawaii, the species has a predominantly fish-based diet consisting of Scaridae and Labridae, with crustaceans, including lobsters, and cephalopods (squid and octopus) making up the remaining portion. The large number of reef fishes suggests it spends much of its time foraging over shallow-water reef habitats, but the presence of squid and the schooling carangid Decapterus macarellus indicates exploitation of more open-water habitats, as well. Off Africa, the diet is similar, consisting mostly of fish including eels, with minor squid, octopus, mantis shrimp, lobsters and other crustaceans. Younger fish inside Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii showed the only instance where crustaceans were preferred over fish; stomatopods, shrimp and crabs were the most common prey taken at 89% of stomach content by volume, with fish, mostly of the family Blennidae, making up only 7% of the stomach contents. Estuarine fish in both Hawaii and Australia have mostly fish-based diets, with crustaceans such as prawns and amphipods also of importance, and they are known to take more novel prey, such as spiders and insects, in these habitats. Juvenile turtles and dolphins were reported being found within the stomach contents of larger giant trevally. Studies of different size classes of fish have found their diets change with age in some locations, with the changes relating to an increased volume of fish taken.
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